Italian Wars for Independence (Guerre per L'Indipendenza Italiana/Risorgimento) and other associated medals/awards

Usually addressed as Wars for Independence or Unification. Typically pertaining to conflicts of 1848/49; 1859/60; 1866/67 and 1870.

Historical outline

Medal notes

Click on thumbnail to magnify Description Price in Canadian Dollars ($ CAD)
Giuseppe Garibaldi 1859, commemorative medallion. Appears to be of French design (Massonnet Editeur/Franky Magniadas)
NEW! Giuseppe Garibaldi 1859, commemorative medallion. Appears to be of French design (Massonnet Editeur/Franky Magniadas). Reverse inscription: "GUERRE DE L’INDÈPENDENCE ITALIENNE 1859; VICTOR-EMMANUEL QUE LA VOLONTÈ NATIONALE A CHOISI POUR NOTRE CHEF SUPRÈME M’ENVOIE AU MILIEU DE VOUS POUR VOUS ORGANISER DANS LES BATAILLES PATRIOTIQUES PROCLAMATION AUX LOMBARDS". Silvered medallion, shows contact marks and some dark spots. Good details, especially to Garibaldi's head etc. 50mm in diameter, planchet 4.2mm thick. Item # ItaInd-23 (88)
$88.00
1848 Lombardia Liberata, Liberation of Lombardy and '5 Days of Milan' commemorative meda
NEW! 1848 Lombardia Liberata, Liberation of Lombardy and '5 Days of Milan' commemorative medal. This was the very beginning of the 1848 Italian First War of Independence. Ribbon is very nice and old. It is curious that entire 'Five Days of Milan' series (there are 5 or 6 different medals for this historically celebrated event) features Pope Pius IX. Medal is iscribed: 'Lombardia Liberata, Nelle Gloriose Giornate 18.19.20.21.22 Marzo 1848'. Bronze, lovely patina. 27.5mm in diameter. One of the earliest medals in the 'Italian Wars of Independence' series, quite scarce too. Ref.: v.H - # 125-126, Brambilla page 190 - type 'A'. Item # ItaInd-22 *SOLD*
*SOLD*
Italian 'access' to Adriatic 1859 medal.
Napoleon III statement regarding Italian 'access' to Adriatic 1859 medal. While this item is not that rare, we have not seen one in this state of preservation! Majority of original light gilding still intact. Display arranged on original ribbon. Light patina. 25.4mm diameter. It would be hard to find better example of this attractive medal. Ref.: Bocchino # 23. Item # ItaInd-21 (112)
$112.00
VE II Attribute medal: "Per il suo Valore e sagezza rendera l'Italia libera e fortunata" - loosely translated 'His Valour and Wisdom will render Italian Liberty and Fortune
1859 - VE II Attributed medal: "Per il suo Valore e sagezza rendera l'Italia libera e fortunata" - loosely translated 'His Valour and Wisdom will render Italian Liberty and Fortune'. Bronze, 21mm. One of the more obscure in the entire series (first time we've ever seen this medal aside the book entry). Fitted with contemporary ribbon. Medal of Italian striking, details well preserved, nicely patinated. Ref.: Bocchino # 8. Item # ItaInd-20 *SOLD*
*SOLD*
1859 Proclamation of Unanimous Vote Vittorio Emanuelle II, King of Italy - Napoleon III, Emperor of France - General of the Allies for Independent Italy
1859 Proclamation of Unanimous Vote Vittorio Emanuelle II, King of Italy - Napoleon III, Emperor of France - General of the Allies for Independent Italy. Medal in bronze. Has interesting initials deeply struck to reverse - letters 'P * G'. Likely belonging to the owner. Medal shows considerable wear but still retains decent overall details. Fitted with contemporary ribbon. 24mm diameter. Ref.: Bocchino # 35, this medal is not easily found. Medal by 'CAQUE' - barely visible on the reverse. Item # ItaInd-19 (78)
$78.00
1859, VE II medal. Medal commemorating the Unanimous vote and proclamation of the King Vittorio Emanuele II
1859, VE II medal. Medal commemorating the Unanimous vote and proclamation of the King Vittorio Emanuele II. Obverse insriptions: 'Vittorio Emanuele II Re D'Italia'; reverse: 'A Voto Unanime Proclamato Re D'Italia, Il Valente Difensore E Primo Soldato Dell'Indipendenza 1859'. Designer's name on the bottom of the bust ' CAQUE'. Likely of French production. Complete with contemporary ribbon. Ref.: Bocchino # 9. One of the scarcer medals in the series. Item # ItaInd-18 *SOLD*
*SOLD*
1859 Battle of Solferino (Battaile de Solferino) commemorative medal. Bronze, excellent details and condition. Unique type with 'V. Emmanuel Roi D'Italie' inscription' - this is similar to one in Bocchino's book # 60 but not listed with that inscription (there are 3 other types listed). Unmarked, Italian production. 23.1mm dia. Complete with older replacement ribbon. Excellent medal. Item # ItaInd-17 *SOLD*
*SOLD*
Solferino Battle Victory ,1859 Miniature medal
Solferino Battle Victory ,1859 Miniature medal, bronze with old ribbon (likely a replacement). Good sized mini - 13mm dia. Very good details, maker marked 'CT' beneath the bust. Such miniatures are very rare. Item # ItaInd-16 (69)
$69.00
Italy Silver Independence Medal with 1866 bar
Silver Independence Medal with 1866 bar. Fabulous condition, type by CANZANI. Original ribbon. Slight wear (contact marks to bottom), would be hard to find a better example. 32mm ø. Item # Ita-363 *SOLD*
*SOLD*
1859 Battle of Solferino (Battaile de Solferino) commemorative medal
1859 Battle of Solferino (Battaile de Solferino) commemorative medal. Gilded bronze, excellent details and condition. Original ribbon shows age, it is fragile - especially around the eyelet (thread separation and some pulls). Unique type with 'V. Emmanuel Roi D'Italie' inscription' - this is similar to one in Bocchino's book # 60 but not listed with that inscription (there are 3 other types listed). Usual maker's mark present. 23mm dia. Excellent medal. Item # ItaInd-15 *SOLD*
*SOLD*
2nd War (1859), Defender of italian Independence (VE II); Liberator of Italy (Napoleon III).
2nd War (1859), Defender of italian Independence (VE II); Liberator of Italy (Napoleon III). One of the larger medals in the series at 27.5mm dia. Original ribbon. Hard to find. Shows wear and pitting but still reasonable. Designer's name beneath Napoleon's bust: 'Caque'. Ref.: Bocchino # 34. Item # ItaInd-14 (102)
$102.00
1859 Liberation of Adriatic (region) commemorative medal.
1859 Liberation of Adriatic (region) commemorative medal. Replaced ribbon. Medal shows wear but still very reasonable. ø 25.4. Ref.: Bocchino # 23. Item # ItaInd-13 (92)
$92.00
1859/60 Unity medal. French and Italian flags.
1859/60 Unity medal. French and Italian flags. Replaced ribbon, medal in good condition. ø 25.3mm. Ref.: Bocchino # 37Item # ItaInd-12 (98)
$98.00
Liberators of Rome 1870 commemorative medal "Roma Rivendicata"
Liberators of Rome 1870 commemorative medal "Roma Rivendicata". Bronze, original ribbon. Medal in very good condition. Issued to veterans of the liberating army. There were at least 3 known variations of this medal. Offered here is the unmarked type, probably made during 1880's. First medals were awarded to foreigners helping Italians re-take their capital, gold medals were awarded to most prominent people involved in actions from 1848-1870; silver medals for important military figures etc. 32mm in diameter. Item # ItaInd-11 *SOLD*
*SOLD*
1848 Rome - Benemerenti medal for Volunteers of Defence of Vicenza - 2nd type . Medaglia Per I Volontari Romani Alla Difesa Di Vicenza - tipo coniato.
1848 Rome - Benemerenti medal for Volunteers of Defence of Vicenza - 2nd type . Medaglia Per I Volontari Romani Alla Difesa Di Vicenza - tipo coniato. The City of Rome sent a Volunteer Regiment to aid the city of Vicenza (large city in the province of Lombardy-Veneto) in their bid to free the city from the Austrians. The victorious uprising was followed by the proclamation of a Provisional Government. The Austrians returned under command of Graf Radetzky and in a series of bloody skirmishes were beaten back. Radetzky regrouped, received reinforcements and besieged the city with some 30 000 regular army troops. Valiant but brief (1 day) defence--aided by only 1 heavy cannon--failed. After considerable heavy street fighting, Austrians took the city and were quite brutal with captured defenders. Purportedly, some 1400 Roman Volunteers (by some authors called "Roman Legionnaires") were later released and returned to Rome. Medals of Merit for the Vicenza defence were originally cast (and according to our research very few were made) and eventually die-struck (like example offered here) in 3 grades: bronze gilt, silver and bronze. 1st type (cast medal) differed slightly from the struck examples. Bronze, 32mm in diameter, 2mm planchet. Light rub to ribbon above ball suspenision, also few pin holes. Wonderfully patinated, crisp details. Very rare and with original ribbon! Ref.: V.H - # 650-652, Brambilla page 212. Item # ItaInd-10 *SOLD*
*SOLD*
Roman Republic 1849 Merit medal. Medaglia Al Merito "Benemerito Della Patria".
Roman Republic 1849 Merit medal. Medaglia Al Merito "Benemerito Della Patria". These medals were conferred (by and Assembly of Constituents of the Roman Republic) on volunteers who saw combat during defence of Rome as part of the Italian 1st War of Independence. A superb and rare type that is not marked. Considerably better quality than examples marked by NC (Cerbara). Narrow ribbon is of age and proper colours - most likely original to this particular medal. Few contact marks, otherwise excellent condition. 26mm in diameter, ribbon 17.5 mm wide. Ref.: V.H. 672, similar to Brambilla page 226. Rare medal. Item # ItaInd-9 *SOLD*
*SOLD*
1859 Adriatic Region/Campaign Commemorative medal
1859 Adriatic Region/Campaign Commemorative medal. Reverse Inscription: 'L'Italia Deve Essere Libera Sino All'Adriatico 8 Maggio 1859'. Bronze, 25mm diameter. Short original ribbon. Darkenede with age, some light pitting but overall good condition. One of the scarcer medals in the series, Italian production. Ref.: Bocchino # 23. Item # ItaInd-8 *SOLD*
*SOLD*
2nd War of Independence, Italian-French Unity medal.
2nd War of Independence, Italian-French Unity medal. Obverse with Emperor and King, legend: 'Napoleone III Imp; Vit Emanuele II Re. Reverse with 2 crossed flags and word: 'Riuniti'. Old ribbon, appears original. Italian manufacture in bronze. Shows some wear, especially edges. 25mm dia. Ref.: Bocchino # 37 (book indicates that these were made by Johnson). Item # ItaInd-7 *SOLD*
*SOLD*
1859 War of Independence. 'Defenders of Italian Independence' - Cavour and Garibaldi commemorative medal
1859 War of Independence. 'Defenders of Italian Independence' - Cavour and Garibaldi commemorative medal in bronze. Obverse featuring King of Italy, VE II. Reverse inscribed: 'Ai Difensori Della Indipendenza Italiana Cavour Garibaldi 1859'. Original ribbon soiled and with colour bleed (most likely due to moisture). Medal in very good condition, some light damage around suspension eye but not detractive. Italian made. 25mm in diameter. Ref.: Bocchino # 16. Item # ItaInd-6 (109)
$109.00
2nd War for Independence commemorative medal. Type: Vittorio Emanuele II Re DI'Sardegna/Napoleon III Empereur Des Francais
2nd War for Independence commemorative medal. Type: Vittorio Emanuele II Re DI'Sardegna/Napoleon III Empereur Des Francais. Medal by French engraver Caque (marking clear on Napoleon's bust but very faint on VE II). Ref: Bocchino # 36 - but larger type (23mm). Rare medal. Original ribbon. Bronze. Item # ItaInd-5 *SOLD*
*SOLD*
Medal for Wars of Unification/Independence with 1859 and 1866 bars. Silver, type by CASSINA
NEW! Medal for Wars of Unification/Independence with 1859 and 1866 bars. Silver, type by CASSINA (medals by this maker are hard to find). Excellent details. Original ribbon. Fe minor scratches, otherwise very good condition. 32mm in diameter. Item # ItaInd-4 *SOLD*
*SOLD*
Medallion commemorating 'Triumphant entry of the army returning to Paris
Medallion commemorating 'Triumphant entry of the army returning to Paris (from the Italian campaign) on August 14'. France commited some 130 000 soldiers to aid Italy in 1859. Medallion in silver by F. Caque (he was an fficial Engraver to the Emperor). Reverse signed : 'Massonnet ED' (Editor). Obverse featuring  Emperor Napoleon III. Reverse legend: "Entree Triomphale De L'Armee D'Italie A Paris Le 14 Aout. Center inscription: 'Depart  De Napoleon III 10 Mai. Entree a Milan 6 Juin. Entre Vue Des Deux Empereurs Et Paix De Villa-Franca 11 et 12 Juillet 1859'. Laurel/oak wreath with ribbon featuring more important battles: Montebello, Palestro, Turbico, Magenta, Marignan, Solferino. Thick planchet (5mm), few edge bumps. 50.5mm in diameter. Some wear on obverse, details of reverse are very good. Item # ItaInd-3 *SOLD*
*SOLD*
Italian Campaign 1859 Medal in silver by Barre
Italian Campaign 1859 Medal in silver by Barre. This is the most common version of the medal. Shows considerable wear, complete with older replacement ribbon. Regulation size (30mm). Silver mark (eagle's head) present but somewhat obscured by wear. Good example, priced accordingly. Item # Fra-154 (60)
$60.00
Sold Items
Victory at Magenta 1859 Medal. Napoleon III - V. Emmanuel Roi De Sardaigne (King od Sardinia)
NEW! Victory at Magenta 1859 Medal. Napoleon III - V. Emmanuel Roi De Sardaigne (King od Sardinia) type. Maker: CT. Bronze, 23mm. Excellent details, light wear. Original ribbon. Reverse inscription: "Guerre De L'Independance Italienne; Victoire De Magenta Gagnee Le 4 Juin 1859". Ref: Bocchino #55. Item # ItaInd-2 *SOLD*
*SOLD*
1859 medal for valiant soldiers and defenders of Independence
Rare 1859 medal for valiant soldiers and defenders of Independence. Obverse inscription: 'Vittorio Emanuele II Re Di Sardegna'. Reverse inscription: 'Nel Valente Difensore, Nel Primo Soldato Dell'Indipendenza'; 'L'Italia Giuliva Riconosie Il Suo Re 1859'. Makers mark in form of asterisk with small dots to both sides (o * o) beneath king's bust. Bronze, 23.5mm dia. Medal worn and darkened with age, overall good condition. Ribbon seems original, with silver metallic thread borders. Wear to edges with couple of pulls. Button-hole arrangement on back side of ribbon. Seemingly one of the rarer medals in the series, Bocchino's book only shows drawing (without eye) of this one (medal # 19). Great opportunity to add to your collection. Item # ItaInd-1 *SOLD*
*SOLD*
Italian campaign 1859 medal. Rare, unnamed type
Italian campaign 1859 medal. Rare, unnamed type. Silver French purity mark (boar head). Some collectors believe these were made by Delande on a sub-contract from Barre. It is very difficult to say for certain though. Details differ considerably from Barre's medals, especially inscriptions on reverse (wider spread and thicker fonts). Complete with original ribbon (soiled). Medal itself in very good condition. Some light damage to suspension ball but not detractive. Planchet is thinner (+/- 2.3mm) than Barre's type. Quality is also finer. There were several makers of this interesting medal: Ronchi, Sacristain, Falot, Barre and more. While Barre's marked medals are fairly common - all others are scarce, some exceedingly rare. 30.2mm in diameter. Very good medal - from our own collection. Item # Fra-143 *SOLD*
*SOLD*
1859 Italian Campaign medal by Barre
1859 Italian Campaign medal by Barre. Silver, very good condition (many of these medals are typically well-worn). Just a couple of minor scratches. If you're looking for a great condition Barre's medal - this is the one! Eagle's head silver control mark to cylindrical suspension eye. Replacement ribbon. Item # Fra-8 *SOLD*
*SOLD*
1859 Italian Campaign, commemorative medal for return of the French armies to Paris
1859 Italian Campaign, commemorative medal for return of the French armies to Paris. Issued mostly to the French; however, many Italian officers also received it. Quality strike, bronze gilt. New, proper replacement ribbon. 23mm diameter. Light wear, very good overall condition. Maker's mark beneath Emperor's neck. Similar to medal #75 in Bocchino's book; he states that maker's mark reads CT and it possibly was a French maker. Very interesting medal to both Italian and French collectors. Item # Fra-98   *SOLD*
*SOLD*

1859 Italian Campaign, commemorative medal for return of the French armies to Paris. Issued mostly to the French; however, many Italian officers also received it. Quality strike, bronze gilt. *SOLD*

*SOLD*

Kingdom, War for Independence (unification) commemorative medal. 1865 issue with 1866 and 1870 bars
Kingdom, War for Independence (unification) commemorative medal. 1865 issue with 1866 and 1870 bars. Vittorio Emanuel II. Silver medal by Demetrio Canzani (marked to both sides). *SOLD*
*SOLD*
Italian War of Independence, 1860 (June 14) Annexation of Nice commemorative medal
Italian War of Independence, 1860 (June 14) Annexation of Nice commemorative medal. French strking. Maker/designer mark to obverse, appears to be CT (conjointed). Full inscription to reverse: "Annexion de Nice & de la Savoie a la France 14 Juin 1860". Bronze, 23.2mm in diameter. One of the last medals in the series (Italian Wars of Independence).  *SOLD*
*SOLD*
War of Independence. Commemorative medal - Guiseppe Garibaldi's Army

War of Independence. Commemorative medal - Guiseppe Garibaldi's Army. Bronze. Reverse inscriptions: "Guerre De L'independance Italienne", General Commandant Le Corps des Chasseurs des Alpes". *SOLD*

*SOLD*
1849 ROMAN REPUBLIC Insurrection commemorative medal. Awarded to insurgents and defenders of Rome (June/July 1849)

1849 ROMAN REPUBLIC Insurrection commemorative medal. Awarded to insurgents and defenders of Rome (June/July 1849). This was fought against the French Army who came in aid of the Pope. Medal in silver, marked N.C. (N. Cerbara) to bottom of obverse; fair details. All medals from 1848/49 are quite rare, especially those issued by shortly lived (4 months) Roman Republic. 25.1mm in diameter, ribbon has been replaced but with an old one and in proprer colors of Rome (yellow and purple). *SOLD*

*SOLD*
1859 War of Independence. 'Defenders of Independence' - Cavour and Garibaldi commemorative medal in bronze
1859 War of Independence. 'Defenders of Independence' - Cavour and Garibaldi commemorative medal in bronze. Issued to other ranks (silvered version was made and distributed amongst officers). SOLD*
*SOLD*
1859 War for Italian Independence commemorative medal
1859 War for Italian Independence commemorative medal. Silvered bronze, original ribbon (some colour bleeding). Nicely detailed, part of obverse's inscription 'double struck' (this was common). Most likely Italian manufacture. 26mm dia. Rarely seen type, reference: S. Bocchino, medal # 22. Note that book only shows drawing of nearly identical medal. *SOLD*
*SOLD*
War of Independence, 1860 (March 24) Annexation of Nice commemorative medal. French strking

War of Independence, 1860 (March 24) Annexation of Nice commemorative medal. French strking. Maker/designer mark to obverse, appears to be CT (conjointed). *SOLD*

*SOLD*
War of Independence. Commemorative medal for Victorious battle of Magenta

War of Independence. Commemorative medal for Victorious battle of Magenta. This was one of the more important battles of the campaign. First type of medal with inscription: "V. Emmanuel II Roi de Sardaigne". Second type addresses VE as King of Italy. Most likely French manufacture, also by CT (it is uncertain whether this refers to maker or designer).*SOLD*

*SOLD*

Kingdom, War for Independence (unification) commemorative medal. 1865 issue, Vittorio Emanuel II. Silver medal by Demetrio Canzani (marked to both sides) - with French type suspension bar. *SOLD*

*SOLD*
1866 War for Independence (unification) commemorative medal

1866 War for Independence (unification) commemorative medal. Issued to participants. Vittorio Emanuel II. Silver medal by Ganzani with 1866 ribbon clasp. *SOLD*

*SOLD*
Duchy of Tuscany, commemorative medal for participants in the Independence Wars 1859-1884. Bronze medal by L. Giorgi

Duchy of Tuscany, commemorative medal for participants in the Independence Wars 1859-1884. Bronze medal by L. Giorgi. *SOLD*

*SOLD*
War of Independence, 1859 Victory at Solferino Commemorative Meda

War of Independence, 1859 Victory at Solferino Commemorative Medal. First type with "Victoire de Solferino gagnee le 24 juin 1859" inscription. Bronze, appears to be an Italian striking. *SOLD*

*SOLD*

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Short historical outline

The First Italian War of Independence was fought in 1848/49 between the Kingdom of Sardinia (also known as Piedmont-Sardinia or Sardinia-Piedmont) and the Austrian Empire. Main Battles at Custoza and Novara where under Graf Radetzky Austrians defeated Piedmontese/Sardinian armies.

The 1849 Roman Republic. Government of Papal States was temporarily overthrown by a republican revolution and aided by Garibaldi's army. French and Spanish troops besieged city of Rome and forced revolutionaries to sign truce - ending the short lived (few months) Roman Republic.

The Second War of Italian Independence (1859/60) Franco-Austrian War, Austro-Sardinian War, or Austro-Piedmontese War, was fought by Napoleon III of France and the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia against the Austrian Empire in 1859. Italian unification was the political and social movement that agglomerated different states of the Italian peninsula into the single state of Italy in the 19th century. Main battles: Magenta and Solferino. Some of the more important individuals: Cavour, Garibaldi, Victor Emmanuel II, Napoleon III.
Number of battles against the Papal States in 1860 - Castelfidardo, Perugia, Spoleta and others severely reduced the Holy State's territories.

Third War of Independence (1866) was a direct result of the Austro-Prussian War. Vittorio Emmanuel II tried to take advantage of Austrians being at War with Prussia and invaded Venetia. Main battle occured at Custoza and Naval engagement named battle of Lissa. Garibaldi's Hunters of the Alps (Cacciatori delle Alpi) fought with success at Bezzecca. Venice and Mantua became part of the Unified Italy as result.

Battle of Mentana 1867 - Garibaldi's army of volunteers marches on Rome. French supported Papal troops along with various European volunteers engaged Garibaldi. Uprising in the city of Rome organized by the Revolutionaries was also quickly put down. Small force of Nationalists under Enrico and Giovvanni Cairoli was surrounded by Papal Zouves (famed French unit). Papal State awarded French and other soldiers for the battle (Cross of Mentana).

1870 Siege of Rome. France was engaged in the War with Prussia and withdrew most of the forces in the service of the Papal State. Italian force under General Raffaele Cadorna laid short siege of the city and breached the Aurelian Walls. Rome became the center and the capitol of the Unified Italy.

 

Medal notes

Majority of these medals were commemorative and unofficial. Prior to 1865 there were very few official awards. These small commemorative medals filled the important niche for all those who fought in many battles and numerous skirmishes. Medals were made for various campaigns, individual battles or occasional. Most were made in Italy but also many in France (Italians received considerable help from armies of Napoleon III in 1859-1860) Some were made in different sizes along with non-wearable versions having no suspension eyes. Majority of those (there were over 70 known - different medals) were made in bronze, some (believed to be officer's versions) in silver and silver gilt and very few in gold (of extreme rarity). Several table-top commemorative medallions were made in France (and fewer in Italy).


The few medals made for the Revolutionaries of the 1849 Roman Republic are especially rare, as are those of the 1848 actions.
Official Italian Medal for the Independence Wars was instituted in 1865. There are several clasps available (all represent years, some combined but no individual battle clasps were approved). Medals were manufactured by several makers, some are quite rare.
Papal Medal for Castelfidardo is quite attractive and is known to exist in 5 variations. There are 7 different battle clasps (some very rare).
Cross of Mentana (issued to French troops defending Papal State in 1867) comes in few types (Officer's, Nco's and soldier's) and is found with 8 individual battle clasps. There are some interesting varieties of this award.

There are many awards and medals made in that period, definitely beyond the scope of these short notes. Of interest would be the French 1859 Italian Campaign Medal in its many varieties, along with Medaille Militaire (Military Medal). Not to forget awards made by Austrians, Kingdom of 2 Sicillies along with other Italian States and Cities.

Reference materials are pretty much all in Italian. Alessandro Brambilla's monumental work (Le Medaglie Italiane Negli Ultimi 200 Anni 1784-1900) features several medals and good descriptions. Sandro Bocchino (1859 Ovvero la IIa Guerra per l'Indipendenza d'Italia attraverso le medaglie popolari) authored a very good book on the commemorative medals of the 1859/60 War. Old standard work by H.Von Heyden (Segni d'onore e distintivi del Regno di Italia ed ex Stati Italiani) is always a good reference. Other minor works are: Camozzi-Vertova ovvero Medaliere del Risorgimento (Museo del Risorgimento di Bergamo), C. Romussi - Garibaldi nelle Medaglie del Museo del Risorgimento di Milano and F. Sarti - Garibaldi nelle Medaglie.

 

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